Short answer #1 A good answer will cover
a) Congress could not tax the states under the Articles of Confederation
b) Congress could not pay debt so it printed money leading to inflation
c) Farmers were hit hardest and could not pay state tax, lead to Shay's Rebellion
d) raised doubt in government's power

Short Answer 2
Virginia Plan- representation based on population
supported by Big States
New Jersey plan- rep equal for every state regardless of size
supported by Small States
Great compromise elements of both in regards to representation
Essay 1
Explain the elastic clause
Briefly explain amendments
Talk about Supreme court's role in interpreting laws

The Constitution was written at a time when the United States was primarily an agricultural nation with a small population. The Founders anticipated that the needs of the nation would evolve and thus created a living document to address changes through time. The Constitution's flexibility earned it the phrase, "a living document."

The Founders put in two major provisions to ensure the document's flexibility. First, they included an elastic clause which applied to the powers of Congress. The clause states that Congress can make laws it deems "necessary and proper" to perform its appointed duties. This ensures that as new issues come up in the country, Congress has the power to address them. Second, an amendment process was written in. This gives the people an opportunity to add a provision to the Constitution as they see fit. This is an important feature because it guarantees that as values and needs change, the Constitution can change with them. Finally, it is the job of the Supreme Court to interpret new laws and decide if they are in line with the Constitution. Thus, the Constitution is not a fixed document and that is why it suits an industrialized nation of 200 million people just as it did almost two centuries ago.

Essay 2
Bill of rights protects the rights of the individuals.
Explain reserved, concurrent, and delegated powers.

The rights of individuals are protected in this country through the Bill of Rights. These amendments guarantee civil liberties and rights to each individual. They cannot be violated by the federal government. For example the Fourth amendment protects the individual against illegal search and seizure by law enforcement.

In addition, the Constitution protects the rights of states by dividing up the power between the Federal and State governments. The powers are divided into three parts. Delegated powers are powers expressly given to the Federal Government. They include, signing treaties, coining money, and raising an army. Reserved powers are powers retained by the states. All powers not expressly given to the Federal government are the responsibility of States. Reserved powers include regulation of commerce and running schools Finally, concurrent powers are powers that are shared between the Federal government and states. They include, the ability to tax, charter banks, and provide public welfare.